Just record the metabolites I used in my project.

Amino Acids

BCAA: branched-chain amino acid is an amino acid having aliphatic side-chains with a branch (a central carbon atom bound to three or more carbon atoms). Among the proteinogenic amino acids, there are three BCAAs: leucine, isoleucine and valine

Proteinogenic amino acids: amino acids that are incorporated biosynthetically into proteins during translation. There are 22 genetically encoded (proteinogenic) amino acids, 20 in the standard genetic code and an additional 2 that can be incorporated by special translation mechanisms.

Aromatic amino acid (AAA): amino acid that includes an aromatic ring. Phenylalanine/Tryptophan/Tyrosine/Histidine

Biogenic Amines

Fatty Acids

Types of fatty acids by length:

  • Saturated fatty acids
  • Unsaturated fatty acids
    • trans
    • cis

Fatty acids

Types of fatty acids by length:

  • Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) are fatty acids with aliphatic tails of five or fewer carbons.
  • Medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) are fatty acids with aliphatic tails of 6 to 12 carbons, which can form medium-chain triglycerides.
  • Long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) are fatty acids with aliphatic tails of 13 to 21 carbons.
  • Very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA) are fatty acids with aliphatic tails of 22 or more carbons.

Essential fatty acids

Fatty acids that are required by the human body but cannot be made in sufficient quantity from other substrates, and therefore must be obtained from food, are called essential fatty acids. There are two series of essential fatty acids: one has a double bond three carbon atoms away from the methyl end; the other has a double bond six carbon atoms away from the methyl end. Humans lack the ability to introduce double bonds in fatty acids beyond carbons 9 and 10, as counted from the carboxylic acid side. Two essential fatty acids are linoleic acid (LA) and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA). They are widely distributed in plant oils. The human body has a limited ability to convert ALA into the longer-chain omega-3 fatty acids — eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which can also be obtained from fish.






Fatty Acid Activation

Fatty Acid transport into the Mitochondria






Cholesteryl Esters


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因为不想遗忘! 在这个信息大爆炸的年代,最重要的是对知识的消化-吸收-重铸。每天学了很多东西,但是理解的多少,以及能够运用多少是日后成功的关键。作为一个PhD,大脑中充斥了太多的东西,同时随着年龄的增长,难免会忘掉很多事情。所以只是为了在众多教程中写一个自己用到的,与自己...… Continue reading